Topics Discussed: cholestasis; cholestasis, neonatal; gastroenterology and hepatology; jaundice; neonatal jaundice.
Sections: Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Conclusions, References.
Excerpt:"Jaundice comes from the French word "jaune," meaning
yellow. Jaundice refers to the yellow staining of the sclera, mucous
membranes, and skin by bilirubin. It is not a disease by itself
but rather a manifestation that accompanies different diseases.
Jaundice is caused by elevated serum bilirubin levels with subsequent
tissue deposition. In infants, it is usually apparent with bilirubin levels
above 45 mg/dL (6886 mmol/L).
In older children, jaundice can be noted at levels above 23
mg/dL (3451 mmol/L). The color of the
sclera and skin varies depending on the serum bilirubin level. Jaundice
involves the head first and progresses caudally with higher levels.
- a conjugated bilirubin >1.0 mg/dL, if the total
bilirubin is <5 mg/dL, or
- a conjugated bilirubin level >20% of
the total bilirubin, if the total bilirubin is >5 mg/dL.
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